Mitochondrial DNA reveals a mosaic pattern of phylogeographical structure in Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)

TitleMitochondrial DNA reveals a mosaic pattern of phylogeographical structure in Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2006
AuthorsMagoulas, A, Castilho R, Caetano S, Marcato S, Patarnello T
JournalMol Phylogenet Evol
Volume39
Pages734-46
Keywords*Mosaicism, *Phylogeny, Animals, DNA, Mitochondrial/*genetics, Fishes/*classification/*genetics, Geography, Haplotypes, Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Abstract

This study extends the geographic coverage of a previous study of mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism in European anchovy. Both studies together include 24 samples representing 17 localities extending from the Black Sea, through the Mediterranean Sea to the eastern Atlantic as far south as Dakar, Senegal. Eighty-eight haplotypes define two clades (A and B) separated by 3.2% sequence divergence. Clade A has a star-like genealogy indicative of a recent population expansion. Clade B has a more complex genealogy, consisting of several haplotypes at intermediate frequencies. The distributions of these clades consist of a mosaic with abrupt changes between some areas and gradients between other areas. Clade A predominates the Black and Aegean seas, but is present throughout the Mediterranean. Unexpectedly, new data show that clade A is also at a high frequency in the Atlantic, from Portugal to at least Senegal. Overall, the level of genetic differentiation among populations is high (F(ST)=0.148, p<0.0001), with the greatest differences between basins. AMOVA reveals four main geographical groups: Atlantic, central Mediterranean, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. Mismatch distribution clearly indicates historical bottleneck and population expansion for clade A, while for clade B such evidence is equivocal. This difference may reflect a range expansion for both clades, but with higher gene flow (Nm values) between demes for clade A. Both contemporary and historical processes are important in shaping the complex genetic population structure of European anchovy.

URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=16515866

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