Impaired clearance of apoptotic cells leads to HMGB1 release in the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and induces TLR4-mediated cytokine production

TitleImpaired clearance of apoptotic cells leads to HMGB1 release in the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and induces TLR4-mediated cytokine production
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsVelegraki, M, Papakonstanti E, Mavroudi I, Psyllaki M, Tsatsanis C, Oulas A, Iliopoulos I, Katonis P, Papadaki HA
JournalHaematologica
Volume98
Issue8
Pages1206 - 1215
Abstract

Excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the bone marrow has been associated with the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes. We herein investigated the involvement of toll-like receptors and their endogenous ligands in the induction/maintenance of the inflammatory process in the marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. We evaluated the expression of toll-like receptors in marrow monocytes of patients (n=27) and healthy controls (n=25) by flow-cytometry and also assessed the activation of the respective signaling using a realtime polymerase chain reaction-based array. We measured the high mobility group box-1 protein, a toll-like receptor- 4 ligand, in marrow plasma and long-term bone marrow culture supernatants by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and we performed cross-over experiments using marrow plasma from patients and controls in the presence/absence of a toll-like receptor-4 inhibitor to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine production by chemiluminescence. We assessed the apoptotic cell clearance capacity of patients' macrophages using a fluorescence microscopy-based assay. We found over-expression of toll-like receptor-4 in patients' marrow monocytes compared to that in controls; this over-expression was associated with up-modulation of 53 genes related to the respective signaling. Incubation of patients' monocytes with autologous, but not with normal, marrow plasma resulted in over-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, an effect that was abrogated by the toll-like receptor- 4 inhibitor suggesting that the pro-inflammatory cytokine production in myelodysplastic syndromes is largely mediated through toll-like receptor-4. The levels of high mobility group box-1 protein were increased in patients' marrow plasma and culture supernatants compared to the levels in controls. Patients' macrophages displayed an impaired capacity to engulf apoptotic cells and this defect was associated with excessive release of high mobility group box-1 protein by dying cells. A primary apoptotic cell clearance defect of marrow macrophages in myelodysplastic syndromes may contribute to the induction/maintenance of the inflammatory process through aberrant release of molecules inducing toll-like receptor-4 such as high mobility group box-1 protein. © 2013 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

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