Contribution to the identification of the sea intrusion mechanism of brackish karst springs

TitleContribution to the identification of the sea intrusion mechanism of brackish karst springs
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2006
AuthorsMaramathas, A, Pergialiotis P, Gialamas I
JournalHydrogeology Journal
Pages657 - 662
KeywordsGroundwater hydraulics, Karst, Numerical modeling, Salinization, Salt-water/fresh-water relations

A method of identifying the dominant hydrodynamic sea-intrusion mechanism of brackish karst springs is presented. A karst spring becomes brackish when tubes, which bring the freshwater to the spring (freshwater discharge), intersect other tubes that come from the sea and bring saltwater to the freshwater tubes (saltwater discharge) when the saltwater pressure at the intersection is higher than the freshwater pressure. There are two potential seawater intrusion mechanisms. The first one is the difference between the freshwater density and the seawater density, and the second is the venturi effect. Both mechanisms are present but it is a matter of great significance to know which mechanism dominates. In order to find out the dominant mechanism, the seawater discharge versus the freshwater discharge was charted using the MODKARST model, which estimates these discharges. The model determines how the freshwater discharge affects the saltwater discharge estimating thereby the dominant seawater intrusion mechanism. Application was made to the "Almiros" and "Makaria" springs in Greece. © Springer-Verlag 2005.


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