Broodstock management and hormonal manipulations of fish reproduction

TitleBroodstock management and hormonal manipulations of fish reproduction
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsMylonas, CC, Fostier A, Zanuy S
JournalGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
Volume165
Issue3
Pages516 - 534
KeywordsBroodstock management, Induced spawning, Oocyte maturation, Spermiation
Abstract

Control of reproductive function in captivity is essential for the sustainability of commercial aquaculture production, and in many fishes it can be achieved by manipulating photoperiod, water temperature or spawning substrate. The fish reproductive cycle is separated in the growth (gametogenesis) and maturation phase (oocyte maturation and spermiation), both controlled by the reproductive hormones of the brain, pituitary and gonad. Although the growth phase of reproductive development is concluded in captivity in most fishes-the major exemption being the freshwater eel (Anguilla spp.), oocyte maturation (OM) and ovulation in females, and spermiation in males may require exogenous hormonal therapies. In some fishes, these hormonal manipulations are used only as a management tool to enhance the efficiency of egg production and facilitate hatchery operations, but in others exogenous hormones are the only way to produce fertilized eggs reliably. Hormonal manipulations of reproductive function in cultured fishes have focused on the use of either exogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) preparations that act directly at the level of the gonad, or synthetic agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRHa) that act at the level of the pituitary to induce release of the endogenous LH stores, which, in turn act at the level of the gonad to induce steroidogenesis and the process of OM and spermiation. After hormonal induction of maturation, broodstock should spawn spontaneously in their rearing enclosures, however, the natural breeding behavior followed by spontaneous spawning may be lost in aquaculture conditions. Therefore, for many species it is also necessary to employ artificial gamete collection and fertilization. Finally, a common question in regards to hormonal therapies is their effect on gamete quality, compared to naturally maturing or spawning broodfish. The main factors that may have significant consequences on gamete quality-mainly on eggs-and should be considered when choosing a spawning induction procedure include (a) the developmental stage of the gonads at the time the hormonal therapy is applied, (b) the type of hormonal therapy, (c) the possible stress induced by the manipulation necessary for the hormone administration and (d) in the case of artificial insemination, the latency period between hormonal stimulation and stripping for in vitro fertilization. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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